[The number of these Addenda is explained, and, I hope, excused, by the circumstance that the book was written during the time when communications were much interrupted and many important publications were inaccessible.]
. With regard to the antiquity in Greece of amulets made from durable materials, some additional points should be noted.
1. Amulets of Oriental origin were brought to Athens as early as the eighth century B.C.; see Rodney Young's discussion of two glass amulets representing a woman's head with a heavy mass of hair falling at each side of the face (Hesperia, Supplement VIII, 427-433). Neither Young nor Petrie, who published a similar object (Naukratis, I, 43, Pl. 20, 31), called attention to the fact that the type is probably derived from dynastic amulets representing the head of Hathor wearing a heavy wig (Petrie, Amulets, 3o, Pl. 30, 171 a-f). Even the peculiarity of the unnaturally long neck, remarked by Young, seems to come from an Egyptian prototype. The prolongation of the hair-masses at the sides, and the habit of mounting the head on a support tended to produce this appearance; note especially Petrie, Amulets, Pl. 30, 171 f.
2. In the graves of Tharros in Sardinia there were found many gems showing a mixture of Phoenician and Greek influence, some of which have Egyptian subjects of the sort used on the magical amulets of Graeco-Roman times, especially Harpocrates, Bes, Isis with the infant Horus, and the funeral of Osiris. The tombs that yielded these stones belong to a period from the sixth to the third century B.C. or even somewhat later. The Tharros gems supply an important connection between the amulets of dynastic Egypt and those of the late period, which are treated in this book. See for these gems Walters, B. M. Cat. Gems, Introd. xxix-xxxii, and Nos. 359, 365, 368, 388 on the Plates; also Furtwangler, Gemmen, I, Pl. 7, 17; 15, 7.
. O. Gueraud reports that several letters of somewhat similar form are confused in an otherwise carefully cut inscription of 5 B.C., found at Kom Trouga in the Delta (Bull. Soc. arch. Alex.,
No. 32, 21).
, second paragraph. The word "consecration" is unsatisfactory and was used merely for convenience. LSJ
rightly defines telete
in such contexts as the act of making anything magically potent, and similar explanations are given for other words of like meaning and use.
. For several years the later publications of the Societe royale d'archeologie at Alexandria were inaccessible to me, and it is only recently that the last two volumes of the Bulletin
have come to hand. In Vol. XII, No. 35, issued in 1942, Alan Rowe publishes an account of the new excavations at Kôm el-Shukafa, in the Rhakotis quarter of Alexandria. This report called my attention to the remarkable series of reliefs found in the central tomb of the three-story catacomb. They are of Roman date, probably of the second and third centuries, and their subjects are closely related to the designs shown on magical amulets; see Rowe's Plates V-XI. Among these, Fig. 3 of Pl. VI shows the funeral of Osiris in a style much nearer to the amulet versions of the scene (D. 8-11
, Pl. I) than are the dynastic examples. The lotus altar shown in Fig. of Pl. VII strengthens the contention that the objects on the altar in the "ibis and altar" type (D. 77-82
) are growing plants, not nails. Fig. 2 of Pl. XI shows Anubis in Roman military costume, with the unusual attribute of a disk on his head. The serpent-tailed Anubis in Roman costume (Pl. XI, fig. 3) may be compared to the lion-headed god with serpent tail, also dressed as a Roman soldier (D. 99-101
), whom I have taken to be developed from the Chnoubis type.
. A fine representation of the phoenix is placed at the center of a large mosaic discovered at Antioch; see J. Lassus, "La mosaique du Phenix" (Mon. et Mem., Fondation Piot,
36 Spier, Gems on CBd-1754
, 81-82, Pl. 5, and fig. 9 on p. 100). The symbolism of the bird is discussed by Perdrizet in the same series, 34 (1934), 97-128. The phoenix seems to have been used as a symbol of the eternity of the Roman Empire. It appears on various coins, e.g. of Hadrian