two other solar words, lailam
Another in the same collection, bearing the cock-headed god on its obverse, has in the field the words Marmarouoth Abrasax and the Harponchnouphi formula (incomplete); on the reverse is the χαβραχ formula, with the number value 9999, which is rarely found except on Harpocrates amulets.112
Here, then, as in the previous example, the formula is assigned to solar deities.
Its special connection with Agathos Daimon is clearer in two other examples. A chrysolite in the Ruthven collection has on its reverse side a crowned snake, evidently an Agathodaimon serpent, surrounded with a long inscription of which the Iaeo palindrome and the Harponchnouphi formula make up the greater part.113
The obverse of this stone shows Isis standing in a shrine, which suggests that the serpent of the reverse side might better be called Agathe Tyche or Thermuthis, the female counterpart of Agathos Daimon. A haematite in the University Museum shows the formula, in part, round a deity who has, in place of a human head, the head and neck of an ibis and a crowned serpent;114
reverse, the Iaeo palindrome, the name Chnoubis, and the words πεσε πεσε (l. πέσσε), “digest” — proof that the stone was used as an amulet for ailments of the stomach. The obverse may be interpreted as a fusion of Thoth with Agathos Daimon, a combination that occurs also in the inscription Θαυτ Ψαε on the reverse of an amulet in the Borgia collection, which has on the obverse an ibis (emblem of Thoth) holding a caduceus under its wing and bearing on its head a tiny figure of Harpocrates.115
Θαυτ Ψαε reproduces a dialectal form of Coptic, “Thoth Fortune” or “Thoth Agathodaimon.”116
Ιαρβαθαγραμνηφιβαωχνημεω. Passages in a Berlin papyrus prove that this formula is especially proper for invocations of the sun,117
and on a Michigan amulet it encircles a solar design, a scarab between two Horus hawks.118
This suggests that there must be a solar element in a strange design repeated with trivial variations on four specimens, three of which belong to the Southesk collection, the fourth to the British Museum, all inscribed with the Iarbatha formula.119
It represents a winged frog on the back of a monster made up of the body and legs of a crocodile and other parts belonging to serpent and eagle. The frog, as Lord Southesk remarks in his description of the type, is a symbol of renewed life or resurrection; as such it was sometimes used by Christians of Egypt.120
The fact that in one of the four specimens
115 Museo Borgiano, p. 456, 11.
116 See Crum, Coptic Dictionary, p. 462 a, p. 544 a–b.
118 D. 210. The formula is recorded by Capello, Prodromus Iconicus, No. 130, on the reverse of a pantheos, which is probably to be classed with the solar designs.
119 Southesk N 78–80, B. M. 43056. This design may also be represented by an example in the Cabinet des Médailles, where I suspect that Chabouillet's description of his No. 2173 needs correction.
120 See Hopfner, Tierkult, pp. 149ff. (Denkschr. Wien. Akad., 57).