κεντευ κοντευ κηριδευ δαρυνγω λυκυνξ, which is found in magical papyri and on a gem (Mich. 26054
) of which the cock-headed god is the obverse type.45
The same words were engraved on a gem of now unknown location over the heads of the seven planetary deities arranged in their traditional order;46
evidently the seven words are the secret names of the gods. Here Hermes is sixth, and the name Δαρυνγω must belong to him.
Εναμορω, ηναμορω, and other variants appear on several stones, chiefly yellow jasper, which have as their obverse design a cynocephalus ape in the attitude of prayer.47
It also occurs on some amulets which, if the reports of their editors are correct, have the jackal-headed Anubis on their faces.48
But the faulty execution of these objects often leaves one in doubt about the engraver's intention, especially when he attempts the head of an animal, and some of them may be wrongly described. The first element of the accompanying word may be Old Coptic ana
, Sahidic ēn
, “ape.” One may venture a tentative suggestion that the whole word is a version in Greek letters of ēn mpro, “
ape of the gate.” Apes open the gates of Hades for the bark of the Sun, and allow the soul of the dead to pass the gates of Amentet.49
Ερεσχιγαλ was easily recognized as the Babylonian underworld goddess Ereshkigal, corresponding to Persephone or Hecate. In the magical papyri the Babylonian name is applied to either Greek goddess or to the fusion of the two, and it clearly belongs to Hecate on an amulet in the British Museum.50
But it also appears with Ακτιωφι and Νεβουτοσουαληθ (a common combination) in an invocation to Aphrodite,51
and on the planetary gem mentioned above; and on an amulet in my possession it is engraved round the uterine symbol, on which Harpocrates is seated (D. 141
). Neboutosoualeth is the moon-goddess in the London demotic papyrus and in a διαβολή in the great Paris papyrus, where Aktiophi appears in the same address;52
and in a protective charm addressed to the moon all three names are used.53
But Ακτιωφ thrice repeated is inscribed in the field of a stone representing Eros with torch, bow, and arrow, an example which illustrates the irregular use of such magical words.54
The common association of Neboutosoualeth with Ereschigal naturally suggested that the former name was in some way related
45 DMP 7, 28; PGM V, 428; D. 172. Cf. Montfaucon II, 2, Pl. 161, 3, from Capello; sun-god in chariot, the formula on the reverse. It occurs also on a heliotrope first published by Maffei (Gemme Antiche, II, fig. 10, p. 12), which is usually regarded as Mithraic. Over a lion holding a bee in his mouth are seven stars, round each of which is placed one of the seven words of the sequence. See Delatte, Musée Belge 18, p. 17.
46 It was published from a cast belonging to the university of Dorpat; see Arch. Zeitung, 14 (No. 96, Dec., 1856), 260–263, Pl. 96, 2.
48 Southesk N 6; Chabouillet 2213, 2215.
49 Jéquier, Le Livre de ce qu'il y a dents Hadès, pp. 20, 40 (Bibl. de l'école des hautes études, 97); Budge, Book of the Dead, Chap. 125.
51 PGM IV, 2912 ff.; for the planetary amulet see n. 46.
52 DMP 4, 11; PGM IV, 2665.