pocrates, is apparently Osiris, here shown nude to the waist and wearing the atef crown. The goddess behind, wearing the hemhem crown, is doubtless Isis. There are two stars and two crescent moons. There is also a variation in the posture of the infant god, who here faces front and holds up his hand with the palm forward in a gesture of benediction; or, perhaps more probably, he may be commanding the sun to rise. The reverse side of this stone shows a scarab beetle between two crowned hawks, and the encircling inscription [ι|αρβαθαγραμνηφιβαωχνημεω.
The subject of inscriptions is to be treated in Chapters XIII
, but since it happens that a certain small group of them belongs particularly to solar designs, and one of them almost exclusively to this type, they must be mentioned here. The Berlin magical papyrus 5025 A and B (Pap. I in Preisendanz, Papyri Graecae Magicae
) contains directions for gaining control of a paredros
or attendant spirit. Part of the procedure is a λόγος addressed to the sun, to be recited seven times seven times. The greater part of it is made up of magical words of unknown meaning, most of which are not found, or are rarely found, other magical utterances that have come down to us; but at the end are three formulas that are often attested both in the magical papyri and on amulet stones.4
These are as follows:
1. A long palindrome, ιαεωβαφρενεμουνοθιλαρικριφιαευεαιφιρκιραλιθονυομενερφαβωεαι; we may refer to it as the Iaeo formula.
2. A formula which is corrupt in the Berlin text, but which may be restored from other passages, and particularly from the stones, as χαβραχ φνεσχηρ φιχρο φνυρω φωχω βωχ.
3. The formula ιαρβαθαγραμνηφιβαωχνημεω (γραμμη P.).
At the end of the praxis for obtaining a paredros
there is a supplementary note saying that for the address to the sun only the Iaeo formula and the Iarbatha formula are needed;5
thus their specifically solar character seems to be made plain. Now we have seen that the Iarbatha formula accompanies the reverse design of the fine Michigan haematite of which the obverse shows Harpocrates, the young sun-god, in his boat with two other divinities, and attended by the triads of animals. The palindrome Iaeo, etc., is associated with several designs — Isis and Harpocrates, Sarapis, the Chnoubis snake, which is also a solar type, and with the “pantheos.”6
This last is a grotesque compound figure built up partly on the type of a young Horus, as he appears on the numerous magical stelae, partly on that of Bes, partly on the representations of Horus which try to give him attributes of all the gods.7
The figure which dominates the reverse of the Metternich stele (Budge, Gods
, II, 273) is most like this strange mixed form, and is its prototype.8
The Chabrach formula, which certain scholars have supposed to be made up of Hebrew or of Coptic words, has a curious interest in one respect; when
7 A fuller description and treatment of this type will be found in a later section of this work (p. 158).